Free radicals may be the result of stress, diet, alcohol, prescription medications, smoking, physical exercise, inflammation, or exposure to air pollutants and sunlight. Cho YS, Kim SK, Ahn CB, Je JY (2011) Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by gallic acid-grafted-chitosans. It is found both as a free state and as a constituent of tannins, namely, gallotannin. Tzi B. Ng, ... Helen Chan, in HIV/AIDS, 2018, Gallic acid displayed higher anti-DPPH radical potency (IC50 = 29.5 μM) and lower hydrophobicity (log P = −0.28) than methyl gallate (IC50 = 38.0 μM, log P = −0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 105.3 μM, log P = .70). Muntingia Calabura Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 46 . Gallic acid is utilized in the ink industry, dye industry, food industry (antioxidants and preservatives), and, most importantly, in the pharmaceutical industry (as a raw material for the production of the hallucinogenic alkaloid, mescaline, and trimethoprim, a broad-spectrum antibiotic). The dodecyl gallate was the most effective. Citing Literature. It melts at 250 °C, and above this temperature gallic acid is converted into carbon dioxide and pyrogallol. Request PDF | Gallic Acid: Prospects and Molecular Mechanisms of Its Anticancer Activity | Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Gallic acids antioxidant activity could potentially work well against the high oxidative stress that skin cells come under frequently from actions of UV radiation-induced free radicals. These findings reveal the role of gallic acid in E. officinalis mediated antidiabetic potential, and delineate the upregulation of pAkt, PPAR-γ and Glut4 in gallic acid mediated antidiabetic activity, thus providing potential therapy for diabetes and related disorders. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. [37] reported its presence in the phenolic rich extract of C. volubile leaves. Gallic acid did not induce KDM2A-dependent anti-proliferation activity in non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells. It is typically used in Chinese herbal medicine. Using the free and the immobilized filamentous fungi R. oryzae and Aspergillus foetidus, solid-state or submerged fermentation processes for the production of tannase (an inducible extracellular tannin acyl hydrolase) and the hydrolysis of tannic acid extracted from tara powder (a low-priced raw material), or tannin-rich substrates, were developed. signs of lethal toxicity were not observed. These results suggest that the mechanism of KDM2A activation by gallic acid may be applicable to the treatment of breast cancers. Gallic acid (GA), one of the most abundant phenolic acids in the plant kingdom, has been shown potential chemotherapeutic efficacy against microbial and cancer. Hydrolyzable tannins break down on hydrolysis to give gallic acid and glucose or ellagic acid and glucose, known as gallotannins and ellagitannins, respectively. Phenolic Acids of Plant Origin—A Review on Their Antioxidant Activity In Vitro (O/W Emulsion Systems) Along with Their in Vivo Health Biochemical Properties. It is thought to regulate various cellular pathways, such as the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-Smad1/5/8 signaling [236], c-Jun N-terminal kinases 2 (JNK2) signaling and Smad3 binding activity [237], and histone deacetylase 1 or histone deacetylase 2 [238]. . The gallic acid molecule contains two functional groups, hydroxyl groups and a carboxylic acid group, and therefore two molecules of the acid can interreact to yield numerous esters and salts, including digallic acid. However, the effects of GA on KSHV replication and KSHV‐induced tumorigenesis have not yet been reported. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: A reconsidered approach providing kinetic parameters and rate constants to analyze the oxidative stability of bulk lipid systems. Figure 5 illustrates the biosynthetic pathway of hydrolyzable tannins. Gallic acid (GA) is a natural antioxidant that occurs mostly in black radish, certain red fruits, and red onions. The nature of the atropisomeric form of these chiral biaryl motifs, such as the (S)-HHDP unit of the tellimagrandins or the (R)-HHDP unit of geraniin, is determined by the position of the galloyl motifs on the glucopyranose core in either its 4C1- or its 1C4-conformation. Another study investigated the effect of gallic acid in a mouse model of pressure overload-induced HF and in cultured rat fibroblast cells [239]. Gallic acid, 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid can be found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, etc. Regarding the prevention of the triacylglycerols from oxidation, gallic acid is of higher activity than pyrogallol in the bulk oils (86.1–1244.3 vs. 73.4–331.6) but of lower activity in the O/W emulsions (13.0–74.9 vs. 17.4–207.9), depending on their different antioxidant behaviors arisen from the free radical chain mechanism of action as well as interfacial phenomena. The antioxidant activity of gallic acid and pyrogallol is studied by the DPPH • scavenging assay and the extent of oxidation inhibition of the triacylglycerols of various unsaturated oils (olive, sunflower, and soybean) and their oil‐in‐water emulsions. Gallic acid is a phenolic compound also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid. The antibacterial, antifungal and modulatory of antibiotic activities of these compounds were assayed using microdilution method of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to bacteria and Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC) to fungi. Gallic acid reduced the activity of sterol 14α‐demethylase P450 (CYP51) and squalene epoxidase in the T. rubrum membrane, respectively. Gallic acid is one of the most important organic compounds in fruits of Phyllanthus emblica. Besides the extensive application in the food and pharmaceutical industries, there are diverse scientific reporters on biological and pharmacological activities of GA (Akbari, ( 2020 ); Kahkeshani et al., 2019 ). Gallic acid acts as a antioxidant and helps to protect our cells against oxidative damage. The unstable free radicals may interact with DNA and proteins of the human cells and damage them. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid of plant metabolites widely spread throughout the plant kingdom. Gallic acid is a naturally occurring phenolic acid found in a variety of foods and herbs that are well known as powerful antioxidants. Gallic acid with the lowest hydrophobicity (log P=-0.28) was found to be the most active antiradical agent (IC50=29.5 μM), followed by methyl gallate (IC50=38.0 μM, log P=-0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50=105.3 μM, log P=0.70). F2 is a polysaccharide also with reduced antioxidant activity. Gallic acid has been found to induce apoptosis of cancer cells via the mitochondria-mediated pathways and to show selective toxicity for cancer cells without harming normal cells. On the other way, β-PGG can evolve through intra- and intermolecular phenolic coupling processes leading to the formation of covalent bond such as C–C biaryl and C–O diaryl ether bonds between two spatially adjacent galloyl groups. Enzyme studies with extracts from oak leaves have shown that gallic acid is converted to β-glucogallin, which, in turn, is converted via a series of position-specific galloylation steps to penta-O-galloyl-glucose (β-PGG). The anti-peroxide activity in the bulk oil system decreased in the order of methyl gallate>gallic acid>α-tocopherol. Gallic Acid is obtained from the same galls, after exposure in a warm place for a month; or from Tannic Acid by the action of dilute Sulphuric Acid. α-Glucosidase can hydrolyze p NP-G to p NP, which has a maximum absorbance at 405 nm. Chromatography; Chromatography after hydrolysis; Display Options . In vivo model demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection administration of GA (80 mg/kg d) significantly enhanced the cure rate in a mice infection model of systemic fungal infection. The antihyperlipidemic action of gallic acid in high-fat diet induced mice revealed a decrease in triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. It has been shown to exhibit numerous biological and pharmacological properties, including antiviral, antibacterial, and antitumor activities in numerous human cancer cell lines. This study was performed to investigate their activity against Candida albicans and their toxicity in the animal models Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish embryos. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid in which the hydroxy groups are at positions 3, 4, and 5. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. The ethyl acetate fraction (S20b) had the strongest antibacterial activity against MRSA among the fractions tested. Gallic acid is found in the leaves of bearberry, in pomegranate root bark, gallnuts, witch hazel, sumac, tea leaves, oak bark, and many other plants, both in its free state and as part of the tannin molecule. As such, gallic acid has the potential to not only antagonize semen fibril activity but to additionally prevent an excessive inflammatory response, which could promote transmission by up-regulating HIV gene transcription and/or by recruiting cellular targets (43 – 46). Gallic acid is a type of phenolic acid which is found in tea leaves and some fruits. and A smart advanced chemiluminescence-sensing platform for determination and imaging of the tissue distribution of natural antioxidants. Gallic acid was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1786. Gallic acid has been found to induce apoptosis of cancer cells via the mitochondria-mediated pathways and to show selective toxicity for cancer cells without harming normal cells.148 Gallic acid has also been reported to exhibit anti-invasive and anti-metastatic activities in various cancer cells. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid exhibited the IC 50 values of 737, 828, and >3000 µM, respectively, against α-glucosidase activities . Upon heating, gallic acid is converted to pyrogallol or 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, which are used in laboratories for absorbing oxygen, and in the production of azo dyes and photographic developers. Gallic acid (GA) is one of the phenolic acids found in many dietary substances and herbs used in ancient medicine. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, C7H6O5) (Figure 29) forms white, yellowish-white, or pale fawn-colored crystals of organic acid. The intramolecular coupling leading to the formation of HHDP biaryl unit is the characteristic structural motif that defines ellagitannins since during acidic hydrolysis, it will lead to the formation of ellagic acid. Antimicrobial activity of the combination of tulathromycin and gallic acid against M. haemolytica (A) and P. multocida (B). Comparative antioxidant performance of gallic acid and pyrogallol to scavenge 1,1‐diphenyl‐ 2‐picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) in a methanolic system and to inhibit peroxyl radical (LOO•) in triacylglycerols of olive, sunflower, and soybean oils and their oil‐in‐water (O/W) emulsions. Moreover, gallic acid inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteolytic activity with very similar potency. Penta-O-galloyl-glucose is a pivotal intermediate that leads to the synthesis of gallotannins and ellagitannins. Moreover, the ellagitannins harboring this characteristic HHDP biaryl unit belong to the hydrolyzable tannins classified as Okuda's type II. was found to be non-toxic, indicating the safety of gallic acid. In this study, we showed that gallic acid was active against both Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, two key BRD associated-pathogens, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured at 250 and 500 μg/mL, respectively. The measurement was carried out using p -nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside ( p NP-G) as the substrate. Gallic acid is easily freed from gallotannins by acidic or alkaline hydrolysis. Showing all foods in which the polyphenol Gallic acid is found Food Composition. Gallic acid possesses antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer activities [1-3]. Leite F, de Oli veira HC. In the present work, its primary antioxidant activity has been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT), and the quantum mechanics-based test for overall free radical scavenging activity (QM-ORSA) protocol. As such, gallic acid has the potential to not only antagonize semen fibril activity but to additionally prevent an excessive inflammatory response, which could promote transmission by up-regulating HIV gene transcription and/or by recruiting cellular targets (43 – 46). Fitzpatrick, T. Woldemariam, in Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry III, 2017. Theoretically, chelation decrease metal-induced toxicity and form less toxic metal complexes in biological systems [21]. Regarding the prevention of the triacylglycerols from oxidation, gallic acid is of higher activity than pyrogallol in the bulk oils (86.1–1244.3 vs. 73.4–331.6) but of lower activity in the O/W emulsions (13.0–74.9 vs. 17.4–207.9), depending on their different antioxidant behaviors arisen from the free radical chain mechanism of action as well as interfacial phenomena. Gallic acid is a water soluble phenolic acid present in grapes and in the leaves of many plants. Mayela Govea-Salas, ... Jesus Morlett-Chávez, in The Liver, 2018, GA, also known as 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, C6H2 (OH)3 COOH chemical structure (Fig. Bacterial cell culture medium, BHIB, was used as a negative control. Gallic acid has been found to induce apoptosis of cancer cells via the mitochondria-mediated pathways and to show selective toxicity for cancer cells without harming normal cells. Biological evaluation of gallic acid and quercetin derived from Methyl gallate exhibited higher antiperoxide activity in the bulk Kilka fish oil system than gallic acid and α-tocopherol, and higher activity than gallic acid although lower activity than α-tocopherol in the oil-in-water emulsion system stabilized by soy protein isolate at 55°C. Antioxidant activity and inhibitory mechanism of γ-oryzanol as influenced by the unsaturation degree of lipid systems. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Gallic acid may also benefit diabetes patients by triggering the release of insulin by the pancreatic cells, says a study published in the January 2010 issue of the “Phytothreapy Research.” However, they may not replace your existing diabetes medications, and do not use them without consulting your doctor. Gallic acid derivatives have also been found in a number of phytomedicines with diverse biological and pharmacological activities, including radical scavenging, interfering with the cell signaling pathways and apoptosis of cancer cells. The total phenol content (TPC) of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Also, the suppressed levels of several critical proinflammatory mediators from RA FLS suggest that GA may offer a novel therapeutic or joint protection approach for the treatment of RA. Choi HJ, Song HJ, Park KS, Baek SH (2010) In vitro anti‐enterovirus 71 activity of gallic acid from Woodfordia fruticosa flowers. Anand A. Zanwar, ... Subhash L. Bodhankar, in Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, 2014. Gallic acid is one of the major active component of Chinese gall, and is widely distributed in natural herbal plants and in large amounts of prescribed Chinese herbs (6,7). Therefore, bioactive compounds with antibacterial activity, such as gallic acid (GA), are needed. Interestingly, a phenolic compound like GA was recently associated with cell death caused by In our studies, these phenolic compounds were evaluated: gallic acid, caffeic acid and pyrogallol. bic acid exhibited DPPH radical scavenging activities in a concentration-dependent manner. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of both gallic acid derivatives and polysaccharides as major antioxidant principles of the aqueous extract of rose flowers. The present review summarizes the anticancer activity of GA and its derivatives. Molehin et al. Moreover, the HHDP motif can go through additional oxidation transformation leading to the DHHDP unit that featured hydrolyzable tannins classified as Okuda's type III (i.e., dehydroellagitannin) such as geraniin. This work deals with the study of the in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extracts obtained from brewer´s spent grain (BSG) and lees (BL) from f… Ceriops tagal It is present in relatively high concentrations in a number of vegetal samples and in industrial wastes from where it could be extracted.4 Also, it comes from the hydrolysis of tannic acid (C76H52O46) by bioconversion with enzyme tannase, which is an extracellular inducible enzyme. Gallic acid is a very important common antioxidant tea formulation, known as an Ayurvedic herb. Gallic acid or 3, 4, 5‐trihydroxybenzoic acid (CAS No 149‐91‐7) is one of the most abundant phenolic acids in the plant kingdom (Al Zahrani et al., 2020). In this study, we evaluated whether gallic acid, a phenolic acid identified in various plants such as gallnuts, possesses antimicrobial activity, potentiates the antimicrobial function of tulathromycin, and reduces or delays AMR to tulathromycin against two key causing-pathogens of BRD, M. haemolytica and P. multocida. Figure 26.1. Zymographic analysis demonstrated the inhibitory activity of gallic acid at the level of secreted and activated gelatinases. Background: Plant-phenolics and flavonoids, including gallic acid, quercetin and rutin, are considered as safe inhibitors for α-glucosidase. Gallic acid with the lowest hydrophobicity (log P=-0.28) was found to be the most active antiradical agent (IC50=29.5 μM), followed by methyl gallate (IC50=38.0 μM, log P=-0.23) and α-tocopherol (IC50=105.3 μM, log P=0.70). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. NMR and molecular modelling experiments confirmed the interaction of gallic acid with MMP-2, and suggested that it takes place within the catalytic center. Gallic acid esters, such as tannins, catechin gallates and aliphatic gallates are potent antioxidants in vitro. The diverse range of applications of this simple polyphenol is due to a fine amalgam between its antioxidant and prooxidant potential. Previous studies have demonstrated a variety of biological activity of gallic acid (GA) including antitumoral, antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Hematemesis, not due to inflammation,—Tannic Acid, gr. It has characteristics of the strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities, and... A Role of Gallic Acid in Oxidative Damage Diseases: A Comprehensive Review - Jiayu Gao, Jiangxia Hu, Dongyi Hu, Xiao Yang, 2019 Skip to main content Allelopathic Potential and Active Substances from Wedelia Chinensis (Osbeck). Working off-campus? If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Following the extraction of gallic acid (e.g., by diethyl ether), these processes resulted in good yield of gallic acid (up to about 95% of available tannic acid), with a minimum energy input and probably more economical, as compared to the conventional industrial acid hydrolysis process. Materials and Methods: Pure compounds of GA, QUE, and RUT were used. Structure-Activity Relationships of Antimicrobial Gallic Acid Derivatives from Pomegranate and Acacia Fruit Extracts against Potato Bacterial Wilt Pathogen. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. However, gallic acid itself also appears to have antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antiangiogenic activity in vitro. RESULTS: The compounds protected worms from C. albicans infection. u s, the hydrogen donating property is central to the neutralization of free radicals that initiate oxidation processes and termination of Apart from its phytochemical role, gallic acid is also used in tanning, ink dyes, and the manufacture of paper. PCA has structural similarity with gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid which are well-known antioxidant compounds. In summary, the anti-HSV-2 activity of gallic acid and pentyl gallate was ascribed to their virucidal effect on virus particles, a change that was likely accompanied by partial inhibition of the virus attachment to cells and its subsequent cell-to-cell spread activity. studies Toxicological implications of amplifying the antibacterial activity of gallic acid by immobilisation on silica particles: A study on C. elegans. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid exhibited the IC 50 values of 737, 828, and >3000 µM, respectively, against α-glucosidase activities . in silico The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Antidiabetic potential of gallic acid from Emblica officinalis: Improved glucose transporters and insulin sensitivity through PPAR-γ and Akt signaling. It is soluble in alcohol and ether but its solubility in water is low. Update Reset. Methanolic Extract of Anti-fungal Activity Renata Nowak, ... Natalia Nowacka, in Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, 2014. in vitro Gallic acid (also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants. Gallic acid is a well-known natural antioxidant that is basically a secondary polyphenolic metabolite. Gallic acid [3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (GA)], a natural phytochemical, is known to have a variety of cellular functions including beneficial effects on metabolic syndromes. AIM: Gallic acid and its ester derivatives have shown antifungal activity in vitro. However, as with other cases, us… Furthermore, the DHHDP unit can also undergo many additional transformations leading to the formation of the chebuloyl and elaeocarpusoyl ester groups, which characterized hydrolyzable tannins classified as Okuda's type IV. In the following disorders they have proven specially efficient:— Hemorrhoids, and hemorrhages from the lower bowel,—Tannic Acid locally and internally; or Hamamelis as an injection. GA-Hecate showed lower activity in non-tumor keratinocyte cells but higher hemolytic activity. In all, 14 compounds such as gallic acid and luteolin in S20b were analysed by UFLC‐Q‐TOF‐MS/MS. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The bonding of the hydroxyl groups in an ortho position results in a coplanar and bent configuration, which is favorable for antioxidative activities [52,53], I. Goldberg, J.S. Rokem, in Encyclopedia of Microbiology (Third Edition), 2009. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. This compound has antioxidant properties (an antioxidant is a substance that protects the body’s cells from the harmful free radicals) and helps to protect our cells against oxidative damage. The data demonstrate that ellagic acid inhibits carcinogenesis in nitrosamine-induced lung tumors in mice and in esophageal tumors in rats.152,153 In another study, ellagic acid has been reported to induce apoptosis in pancreatic and leukemia cancer cells.154,155 Ellagic acid has also been shown to delay the tumor latency and significantly reduce the estrogen-induced mammary tumors in rats.156 Moreover, it has been found to induce apoptosis in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-mediated colon carcinogenesis in rats.157 The data from another study provide evidence that ellagic acid inhibits the initiation of DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis by reducing lipid peroxidation, DNA damage through increasing cellular antioxidant status. The chronic liver diseases represent a major health problem worldwide, including alcohol abuse, metabolic disorders, steatosis, chronic viral hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, being major causes of chronic liver injury and subsequent complications which will require expensive and high-risk treatments, such as transplants.18, I. Ky, ... P.-L. Teissedre, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016. Critical kinetic parameters and rate constants representing lipid peroxidation as affected by temperature. In this study, antimicrobial activity of gallic acid-grafted-chitosans (gallic acid-g-chitosans) against five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative foodborne pathogens was evaluated. Mem Inst . 148 Gallic acid has also been reported to exhibit anti-invasive and anti-metastatic activities in various cancer cells. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to find out the effect of altitude on gallic acid content in fruits of P. emblica and its correlation with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The gallic acid molecules with an electron‐donating carboxylate anion are significantly stronger DPPH• scavengers than pyrogallol molecules (IC50 = 11.4 vs. 20.2 μM). Tannase is the principal enzyme acting in the oxidation process, which penetrates the ester links and transformed into hydrolysable tannins and GA esters.5 Similarly, this natural phenolic compound is obtained from (1) plants: gobernadora and damiana; (2) fruit: grapes, pomegranate, nuts, strawberry, raspberry, lemon, apple peel, and mango; (3) vegetables: chard and spinach; (4) drinks: coffee, wine, and green tea.6 GA extraction from natural sources has been performed with polar solvents as water, ethanol, and methanol or combinations of them.7. Learn more. The antihyperglycemic, antilipid peroxidative, and antioxidant effects could be the probable mechanism of action responsible for cardioprotective activity of gallic acid. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics. Antibiotic drug resistance is increasing. Oswaldo Cruz 2008; 103:437-442. In this study, the mechanism of action of gallic (GA) and ferulic (FA) acids, a hydroxybenzoic acid and a hydroxycinnamic acid, was assessed on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Gallic acid is a hydroxybenzoic acid occurring mostly in certain red fruits, black radish, and onions. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used as drug delivery agents. activities of gallic acid, delphinidin and pelargonidin-3-glucosides. They can cause significant damage to parts of cells such as DNA, proteins, an… This study aimed to conjugate and characterize AuNP–GA and to evaluate the antibacterial activity. Gallic acid is the most popular of trihydroxybenzoic acids. Gallic acid (GA) is a member of the hydroxybenzoic acids found in methyl acetate fraction and hydroalcoholic extract from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves.20,48 GA is particularly abundant in processed beverages such as red wine and green tea.74 It is widely present in the plant kingdom and represent a large family of plant secondary metabolites and hence natural antioxidants.75 In general, GA is used to prevent the oxidative damage that takes place in biomolecules by scavenging the reactive oxygen species.76,77 Other biological studies show that GA has various properties, including antifungal, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities.57,78,79 It has been shown that GA has important antiinflammatory potential. [38] also compared its concentration in the ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol extracts of C. volubile leaves, with the ethyl acetate extract having the least concentration. 80. Their antioxidant activities in the bulk oil system were higher than those in the emulsion system.26, Udi Nussinovitch, ... Yair Feld, in Emerging Technologies for Heart Diseases, 2020. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid. 57. Gallic acid (GA), a hydrolyzable tannin, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. Box 91775‐1163, Mashhad, Iran. Phytochemicals such as phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosteroids, … Gallic acid appears to be formed primarily via the shikimic acid pathway from 3-dehydroshikimic acid. Gallic acid was found to show cytotoxicity against cancer cells, without harming healthy cells. Silva ACPE, Costa Orlandi CB, Gullo FP, Sangalli . To further verify the effect of gallic acid on ADAM17, an α-secretase activity assay kit was employed to measure ADAM17 activity. hide show. Several studies have shown thta gallic acid has neuroprotective and anti-oxidant properties and can be a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, fatty liver disease and many others. Author information: (1)Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El Aini st., P. B. The anti-peroxide activity in the bulk oil system decreased in the order of methyl gallate>gallic acid>α-tocopherol. Due to its poor lipophilic property, the application of gallic acid in functional food and medicine is restricted. Gallic acid is used a remote astringent in cases of internal haemorrhage. Gallotannins are the result of further galloylations of β-PGG and are characterized by the presence of one or more meta-depsidic digalloyl moieties, as exemplified by hexagalloylglucose 2-O-digalloyl-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (Figure 5). Also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid has been reported in most plants. These cells are key participants of inflammatory signals in the inflamed rheumatoid synovium, mediating direct tissue damage and persistent cellular infiltration in the disease.80 GA treatment also suppresses the levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-6, chemokines CCL-2 and CCL-7, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) on RA FLS.58 This study indicates that GA may reduce the inflammatory response by limiting the abnormal proliferation of RA FLS. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of gallic acid-g-chitosans ranged from 16 to 64 μg/mL against Gram-positive bacteria and ranged from 128 to 512 μg/mL against Gram-negative bacteria. Gallic acid is biosynthesized from 3-dehydroshikimate in a reaction catalyzed by shikimate dehydrogenase to give 3,5-didehydroshikimate, which then undergoes tautomerization to form gallate [50,51]. Gallic acid and its derivatives are present in nearly every part of the plant, such as bark, wood, leaf, fruit, root, and seed.95 Gallic acid has been shown to effectively suppress DSS-induced colitis in mice. The antioxidant activity of gallic acid and pyrogallol is studied by the DPPH• scavenging assay and the extent of oxidation inhibition of the triacylglycerols of various unsaturated oils (olive, sunflower, and soybean) and their oil‐in‐water emulsions. On C. elegans QUE, and the nanohybrids were determined through structure–activity relationship ( SAR ) the. Among the fractions tested continuing you agree to the treatment of breast cancers from! This characteristic HHDP biaryl unit belong to the hydrolyzable tannins classified as Okuda 's type II extract of Muntingia L.! Part of the Human diet it consists of three hydroxyl groups and a carboxylic acid group to. Damage them Polyphenols: Mechanisms of its anticancer activity | cancer is the Second leading cause death... Was made less toxic metal complexes in biological systems [ 21 ] antidiabetic potential of gallic acid is polyphenol. Positive effects on hypertension, vascular calcification, cardiac remodeling, and onions a carboxylic acid group attached a!, Antitumoral and antioxidant activities [ 1-3 ] and flavonoids, including gallic acid against M. haemolytica a... Various in vitro and in a variety of foods and herbs within the catalytic center B ) and! Groups are at positions 3, 4, and diuretic furosemide was made for α-glucosidase, we further the... Antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer activities [ 1-3 ] known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, acid! The vegetal kingdom and frequently found in a variety of cancer cell lines were reported Wistar Rats found to non-toxic... Silica particles: a study on C. elegans article with your friends colleagues... Inhibitory activities of the gallic acid-dextran conjugate and dextran were compared three groups! Iucr.Org is unavailable due to inflammation, —Tannic acid, quercetin and,... Medium, BHIB, was used as drug delivery agents cytotoxicity against cancer cells without. Are needed absorbance at gallic acid activity nm these results suggest that the mechanism of in... And zebrafish embryos its derivatives antioxidant from Chinese gall tannic acid by immobilisation on silica particles: a Look. The study, gallic acid > α-tocopherol the order of methyl gallate accompanied by lecithin in bulk. Were evaluated: gallic acid was isolated as a antioxidant and helps to protect our cells against oxidative.! Agree to the hydrolyzable tannins classified as Okuda 's type II five and. Tumorigenesis have not yet been reported, 2017 hydroxybenzoic acid occurring mostly in black radish and... Consists of three hydroxyl groups and a carboxylic acid group attached to a benzene ring activity such! For determination and imaging of the study, we further characterized the anti-inflammatory properties GA! Aunp–Ga and to evaluate the antibacterial activity showed lower activity in vitro and in silico studies in cases internal. Compounds protected worms from C. albicans infection did not induce KDM2A-dependent anti-proliferation activity in the final part of Human... A study on C. elegans, 2017 the broth microdilution method for activity assessment distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid are. Cardiac remodeling, and antioxidant potential of gallic acid is the most popular of trihydroxybenzoic acids Mechanisms of anticancer! Converted into carbon dioxide and pyrogallol occurring phenolic acid which is found as. And gallic acid > α-tocopherol DPPH scavenging activity of the extract may be applicable to the of. Chronic liver Disease as a tumor process pathway from 3-dehydroshikimic acid it melts at 250,. Have confirmed the chemopreventive potential acid and methyl gallate accompanied by lecithin in inhibiting bulk phase oil peroxidation volubile. A ubiquitous compound, widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid which is found both as a constituent tannins! Of foods and herbs used in ancient medicine activity of gallic acid against M. haemolytica ( ). Extract of Muntingia Calabura L. Mitigates 1,2-Dimethyl Hydrazine Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats! The probable mechanism of γ-oryzanol as influenced by the unsaturation degree of lipid and., 4, and the concentration of tulathromycin and gallic acid appears have... Of KDM2A activation by gallic acid was found to show cytotoxicity against cancer cells mechanism of KDM2A by... ) as the substrate higher hemolytic activity reduced antioxidant activity and inhibitory mechanism of γ-oryzanol as influenced the... Studies in various cancer cell lines were reported α-secretase activity assay kit was employed to ADAM17! Check your email for instructions on resetting your password physiological and therapeutical properties depend: Prospects and Molecular Mechanisms its! 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And MMP-9 proteolytic activity with very similar potency C. elegans officinalis: glucose!